Trade and commerce after the mauryan Empire

Major reason was the diversion of silk route as it passed from India.

Why did such huge trade appear between India and Rome?

  • Major reason was the diversion of silk route as it passed from India

  • Sea route → deccan/south → Arabian Sea → Red Sea →Mediterranean Sea → Egypt (alexandria port) → Europe(Italy)

  • Roman emperor Augustus and his commander - Mark Antony invaded Egypt and won the battle and later married the Queen Cleopatra

  • At that time Egypt was full of Arabs(NOT Muslims) and they are Sea lovers at the same time Roman merchant called HIPPALUS learned the knowledge of sea routes from Arabs

  • Directional of Seasonal Winds(monsoons) discovered by Hippalaus which helped traders to back and forth from India and Europe

Note: in Tamil Nadu Muzuris village, there’s a temple of Augustus Built by Romans

In Amaravati there’s a separate colony of romans

  • Technology developed for building highways and ringwells, so guilds became more active.

Imports and Exports:

Imports Exports
Perfumes Spices (pepper)
Few Metals Cotton (Muslins) and Silk from china
slaves Ivory Products
Gold Pearls

India is the hub of Natural Resources and became the master of Exports and has favorable balance of trade, or a trade surplus

Religion During the Sangam Period or post Mauryan Period?

  • Murugan was heavily celebrated in southern India and also for forest tribes

  • Krishna cult became more popular (Bhagavatism), even greeks adopted bhagavatism

  • Bhagavatism emphasis on the Bhakthi for the path to salvation not rituals

Arts and Architecture:

  1. Sanchi school of arts(MP)

  2. Bharhut school of arts(Bihar)

  3. Gandhara School of arts(Taxila)

  4. Mathura school of arts

  • In sanchi stupa, ashoka just added Vedika( circular shape called Anda) , but later Shungas added Toranas and Chatris, chatris indicate (Buddham , Dhamman and Sangam), Railings, and Harmika

  • Shungas replaced wood part with stone crafts

  • In Bharhut stupa we find sculpture of Yaksha and Yakshi

Gandhara School of Arts

  • Capital was Taxila and patronized by milinda and Kushans(Kanishka)

  • Flourished from 1st century AD to 5th Century AD

  • Here buddha looks like greek God Apollo and made with lime stones, clay , plasture and sometimes wood

  • It’s also called Hellinistic art, was mainly influenced by greeks


Mathura School of arts

  • Native art for kushans

  • Buddha sculptures appear in enlightenment form and half closed eyes

  • Torso of Kanishka can be seen with long boots, sword , sheath , kurta,and Pajama also called headless kanishka